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The TGV was the world's fourth commercial and third standard gauge high-speed train service,  after Japan's Shinkansen , which connected Tokyo and Osaka from 1 October , the Russian ER around full service in , and Britain's InterCity on main lines such as the East Coast Main Line , which entered service in The TGV holds the world speed record for conventional trains.
The line voltage was boosted to 31 kV, and extra ballast was tamped onto the permanent way. The train beat the world speed record of The test was part of an extensive research programme by Alstom.
In the TGV was the world's fastest conventional scheduled train: On 28 November the TGV network carried its one billionth passenger, a distant second only to the Shinkansen's five billionth passenger in Excluding international traffic, the TGV system carried 98 million passengers during , an increase of 8 million 9.
TGVs have semi-permanently coupled articulated un-powered coaches , with Jacobs bogies between the coaches supporting both of them.
Power cars at each end of the trains have their own bogies. Trains can be lengthened by coupling two TGVs, using couplers hidden in the noses of the power cars.
The articulated design is advantageous during a derailment, as the passenger carriages are more likely to stay upright and in line with the track.
Normal trains could split at couplings and jackknife, as seen in the Eschede train disaster. A disadvantage is that it is difficult to split sets of carriages.
While power cars can be removed from trains by standard uncoupling procedures, specialised depot equipment is needed to split carriages, by lifting the entire train at once.
Once uncoupled, one of the carriage ends is left without a bogie at the split, so a bogie frame is required to support it.
V was a specially modified five-car double-deck trainset that reached Trains to Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands must accommodate other voltages, requiring tri-current and quadri-current TGVs.
When passing between areas of different supply voltage, marker boards remind the driver to turn off power, lower the pantograph s , adjust a switch to select the appropriate system, and raise the pantograph s.
Pantographs and pantograph height control are selected automatically based on the voltage system chosen by the driver.
Once the train detects the correct supply, a dashboard indicator illuminates and the driver can switch on the traction motors.
The train coasts across the boundary between sections. There were seven bi-current half-sets without seats that carried mail for La Poste between Paris, Lyon and Provence , in a distinctive yellow livery until they were phased out in Each set is made up of two power cars and eight carriages capacity seats , including a powered bogie in the carriages adjacent to the power cars.
The strong bi-current Atlantique fleet was built between and for the opening of the LGV Atlantique and entry into service began in They weigh tonnes, and are made up of two power cars and ten carriages with a capacity of seats.
Modified unit set the world speed record in on the LGV before its opening. The set was reduced to two power cars and three carriages to improve the power-to-weight ratio, weighing tonnes.
Three carriages, including the bar carriage in the centre, is the minimum possible configuration because of the articulation.
As well as using standard French voltages, the tri-current sets can operate under the Netherlands' 1. The bi-current sets weigh tonnes: They can be coupled to a Duplex set.
Differences include a smaller cross-section to fit within the constrictive British loading gauge though High Speed 1 can accommodate Berne gauge traffic, this feature was required when Eurostar trains operated on existing tracks between London Waterloo and the Channel Tunnel , British-designed asynchronous traction motors, and extensive fireproofing in case of fire in the Channel Tunnel.
They also have yellow front panels, which are required for all trains operating on track owned by Network Rail or High Speed 1 in the UK.
In the UK they are called Class Two types were built: Three Capitals sets, consisting of two power cars and 18 carriages, including two with one powered bogie each; and North of London sets, with 14 carriages.
They consist of two identical half-sets that are not articulated in the middle, so that in case of emergency in the Channel Tunnel one half can be uncoupled and leave the tunnel.
Each half-set is numbered separately. Thirty-eight full sets, plus one spare power car, were ordered: Following the merger of the separate Eurostar operators on 1 September , ownership of all jointly owned sets transferred to the parent company, Eurostar International Limited.
The North of London sets have seats. The lease ended in December and a year later the same sets were working SNCF services to Calais in Eurostar livery, albeit with the Eurostar branding and yellow front panels removed.
The chief executive of Eurostar, Richard Brown , suggested that the trains could be replaced by double-deck trains similar to the TGV Duplex when they are withdrawn.
Eurostar has higher security measures than other TGVs. These take place before passengers board the train, so officials from the UK Border Force are stationed in France and Belgium, with their French counterparts stationed in the UK.
In October , Eurostar ordered 10 Class "Eurostar e" trains from Siemens to run on its existing routes from London to Paris and Brussels as well as a new route to Amsterdam alongside its Class fleet.
In , Eurostar announced that it would retain 8 sets once the full fleet of s Es were in service with the rest of the Class sets to be scrapped.
The sets that Eurostar would retain would be fully refurbished and repainted to match the livery of the new Class E trains.
The Duplex was built to increase TGV capacity without increasing train length or the number of trains. Each carriage has two levels, with access doors at the lower level taking advantage of low French platforms.
A staircase gives access to the upper level, where the gangway between carriages is located. There are seats per set.
On busy routes such as Paris-Marseille they are operated in pairs, providing 1, seats in two Duplex sets or in a Duplex set plus a Reseau set.
Each set has a wheelchair accessible compartment. After a lengthy development process starting in during which they were known as the TGV-2N the original batch of 30 was built between and Duplex TGVs are now operating on all of the French high speed lines.
They are technologically similar to TGV Duplex sets, but single deck. They have seats. Seventeen trains were ordered: The bi-current 2N2 can be regarded as the fourth generation of Duplex.
The series was commissioned from December for links to Germany and Switzerland tri-current trains and to cope with the increased traffic due to the opening of the LGV Rhine-Rhone.
TGV technology has been adopted in a number of other countries: SNCF and Alstom are investigating new technology that could be used for high-speed transport.
Italian operator NTV is the first customer for the AGV, and intends to become the first open-access high-speed rail operator in Europe, starting operation in The design process of the next generation of TGVs began in when SNCF and Alstom signed an agreement to jointly develop the trainsets, with goals of reducing purchase and operating costs, as well as improved interior design.
In almost three decades of high-speed operation, the TGV has not recorded a single passenger fatality due to accidents while running at high speed on normal passenger service.
This is credited in part to the stiffness that the articulated design lends to the train. There have been fatal accidents involving TGVs on lignes classiques , where the trains are exposed to the same dangers as normal trains, such as level crossings.
These include one terrorist bombing , which could as well have occurred at high speed as not. Following the number of accidents at level crossings, an effort has been made to remove all level crossings on lignes classiques used by TGVs.
Protesters blocked a railway viaduct to protest against the planned route, arguing that it was unnecessary, and that trains could keep using existing lines to reach Marseille from Lyon.
While most Italian political parties agree on the construction of this line, some inhabitants of the towns where construction would take place oppose it vehemently.
This health danger could be avoided by using more expensive techniques for handling radioactive materials. In addition to the concerns of the residents, RFB — a ten-year-old national movement — opposes the development of Italy's TAV high-speed rail network as a whole.
General complaints about the noise of TGVs passing near towns and villages have led the SNCF to build acoustic fencing along large sections of LGV to reduce the disturbance to residents, but protests still take place where SNCF has not addressed the issue.